About Vitamin K !
The name vitamin K has been derived from the Danish word “Koagulation”. Coagulation process has an important role in blood clotting.Fat soluble vitamin plays an important role in the growth of cell and in the bone metabolism and other tissues.
Source of vitamin K:Good source of vitamin K includes parsely,lettuce,spinach, brussels spout,Swiss chard, cabbage,green beans, asparagus, broccoli, mustard greens,turnip,dairy products and eggs.
Chemistry of vitamin K:All vitamin k forms are naphthaquinone derivative.It is closely related to a compound pthicol,a constituent of tubercle bacilli with slight vitamin K activity.
Types of Vitamin K: There are following types of vitamin K:
- Vitamin K1
- Vitamin K2
- Vitamin K3
Vitamin K1 and K2 are the two naturally occurring forms of vitamin K, that have been identified.The third type of vitamin K3 are also identified but are not much of importance.
Absorption and excretion of vitamin K:It is readily absorbed from small intestine and with the help ofthebile salt. Basically it is not stored to enoughextent. It can also cross the barriers of placenta and there it is readily available to the fetus. The excretion of vitamin K is not into the urine or bile .Feces contain large amount of vitamin K so it may be bacterialorigin. It represent actual excretion by the mucosa of the intestine.
Biological functions of vitamin K:
Blood coagulations: Blood clots through a phenomenon called the Coagulation Cascade.It is reffered as a Cascade as it involves a cascade of enzymes activating each other.
Healthy bones: Vitamin K2 plays an important role in the formation of bones.It also involves in the prevention of bone loss.It modifies the protein osteocalcin.It also gives osteocalcin the ability to bind calcium and calcium can then help to form the bone matrix.
Cell growth:Ga6 is a protein that is important for regulation of cell growth, preventing cell death and proliferation.It also helps the cell to communicate with each other current researches also suggests that this proteins may be involved in the development and aging of the nervous system.
Prevention from cardiovascular diseases:When there is a deficiency of vitamin K osteocalcium doesn’t bind calcium.This means that calcium cannot bind to the bone matrix.With the lack of calcium bones eventually become porous.Calcium is then also free for travel in the blood and eventually gets deposited in the arteries.This causes a hardening of the artries a condition also known as atherosclerosis.Although vitamin K is widely known for it’s involvement in blood clotting.It has been shown to function with in several systems in the body .It is also maintain healthy bones facilitates cell growth and prevents cardiovascular diseases.
Deficiency of vitamin K:Vitamin K is essential for healthy ,dense bones.Its deficiency shows up as bone-related proteins like loss of bone, decrease in bone mineral density and fractures including hip fractures.
Daily requirement of vitamin K:Both vitamin K1 and vitamin K2 are mainly formed in plants and synthesized by bacteria respectively.Vitamin K2 is the product of metabolism of most bacteria including the normal intestinal bacteria of most higher animal species.Dietary requirement of vitamin K is of not much importance under normal circumstances as it is provided by intestinal bacteria in adequate quantities Rapid Tone.